Recommendations from entering systems of fertilizers
On the basis of a full soil analysis results PLT provides detailed recommendationson the application of mineral fertilizers, micronutrients and plant protection products in accordance with the indicators of soil fertility, groundwater areas, varieties and predecessors.
Each method of fertilizer application has its own purpose. To ensure the fullest power plants during the growing period of the elements necessary to properly combine different methods of fertilizer application. The combination of ways to determined features of power and crops, agricultural and soil and climatic conditions. It is also cost-effective to combine the application of fertilizers to other agricultural practices culture processing.
Nitrogen fertilizers are highly soluble and can be easily moved with soil moisture. Variants of nitrogen fertilization:
- making randomly,
- Adding to the number,
- foliar application. The effectiveness of entering depends on many factors. Adding randomly may be less effective than tape or make at sowing. The maximum dose that can be placed in an expedient lower case making depends on:
- soil moisture,
- soil type (clay and organic matter)
- type of fertilizer,
- series interval,
- the distance between seeds.
Usually autumn is a good time to nitrogen fertilization. However, significant loss of nitrogen introduced in autumn can take place in an excessively moist soils. Fertilization randomly at the beginning of the fall can also cause loss of nitrogen. Adding nitrogen late autumn as ammonium greatly reduce the loss. In the course of research carried out in areas with high rainfall, nitrogen fertilization in the spring of randomly showed good results within a short period of time. In this limited possibility of losses of nitrate nitrogen fertilizer (and nitrate formed during nitrification of ammonium, ammonia forms of nitrogen fertilizers and urea) due to leaching and migration from the root layer of soil. On heavy soils in areas with limited precipitation in autumn and winter solid ammonium,
Fertilizers must be placed in the soil, so that they were in a wet layer of soil in the area of the vigorous activity of the root system of the plants (15 - 25 cm), as well as in shallow fertilizers and surface application without incorporation (0 - 5 cm), they will be in the dried top layer of soil over the root system of plants and do not give the desired effect. In addition, be aware that the fertilizer into the soil may remain at the site of their application (bookmarks) and move in different directions. Fertilizer nutrients usually move in the soil with the water, and their movement is influenced by both soil properties and the nature of the fertilizer itself. So, on heavy clay and loamy soils fertilizer moving much slower than light sandy soils, so the greater the risk of the latter leaching of nutrients beyond the root layer. Given this, the clay soils fertilized less than sand, using the maximum recommended dose. Light soils fertilized more often, but smaller doses, ie, the same dose of fertilizer on clay soil is made at a time, and on the sand - in two or three divided doses.
Field variability (terrain conditions)
On hilly terrain often found dry and eroded areas. Low soil moisture, low levels of organic matter and the presence of free lime make these areas are very sensitive to the introduction of nitrogen in the line during sowing. The dose of nitrogen fertilizer at such sites is often less than the rest of the field. Accordingly, the optimum dosage for the entire field will depend on the dose of fertilizer for the most sensitive portions of the area.
Crops respond better to the introduction of nitrogen in the seed rows than rape, mustard and flax. Oats responds better to the introduction of nitrogen than barley, which in turn responds better than wheat. Rape responds better to the introduction of nitrogen than flax.
The depth of planting and seed quality
The seeds of low quality and excessive planting depth culture make more vulnerable to nitrogen fertilizers. Using the seeds with a high germination percentage gives more rapid emergence of seedlings and reduces the possibility of damage from fertilization.
Types of nitrogen fertilizers
Ammonium nitrate (34-0-0)
- It comprises nitrogen in form of ammonium and nitrate,
- less prone to losses during evaporation than urea,
- It is used with ammonium phosphate to provide a total (mixed) type of fertilizer 23-23-0 and 26-13-0.
Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0-24S; 20-0-0-24S; 19-3-0-22S)
- contains sulfur as sulfate (22-24%), which is available to the plant form,
- used for direct inoculation,
- granular fertilizer type 20-0-0-24S, or 19-3-0-22S more suited for mixing than 21-0-0-24S,
- is less prone to losses during evaporation, if submitted to acidic soils, equal to 7.5 or higher. Urea (46-0-0)
- contains a maximal concentration of nitrogen of dry nitrogen fertilizer,
- used for direct inoculation in association with phosphate,
- more prone to losses during evaporation than ammonium nitrate. Significant losses may occur when used in warm dry conditions in sandy soils and alkaline soils (pH 7.5 or above ground).
Anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0)
- suitable for autumn or spring application for annual crops,
- into the soil to a depth of 8-15 cm,
- physical condition - fluid under pressure. Possible losses introduced into the soil. Ammonium nitrate (28-0-0)
- aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate (34-0-0) and urea (46-0-0)
- It can be introduced via the atomizer.
Phosphorus fertilizers are less mobile in the soil than nitrogen fertilizers. Adding to the phosphate root system is developing effective annual crops. Adding randomly less effective than the introduction during sowing. Adding should be randomly divided into two or four portions of the total recommended dose. The main phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is made mainly in the fall and lay under deep plowing. In this fertilizer fall within wetter and less becoming dry soil layer, where a bulk of the existing roots. When deep foundation batteries from the fertilizer is better used by plants and produce a greater effect. Of particular importance is the deep foundation before sowing phosphorus fertilizer, because the phosphorus in the soil as a result of chemical bonding hardly moves. Sensitivity to phosphorus fertilizer can not be so rapid, due to the slow movements of phosphorus in the root zone. Typically, the positive effect of phosphorus fertilizers is shown year after application.
Types of phosphate fertilizers
Monoammonium phosphate (11-51-0, 12-51-0, 11-55-0)
- one of the most simple and accessible phosphorus fertilizers,
- It is used as a single fertilizer in admixture with a nitrogen fertilizer, to obtain various kinds of fertilizers 16-20-0, 23-23-0, 27-27-0 and 26-13-0.
There are also other phosphorus fertilizer such as diammonium phosphate (18-46-0), monocalcium phosphate or triple superphosphate (0-45-0), ammonium polyphosphate solution (10-34-0), monoammonium phosphate solution (Oct. 30 -0), and others.
Potassium is more available to the plant in the soil than phosphorus, but for annual crops Potassium fertilizer more effective when incorporated in the string at sowing. The maximum quantity that can be logged for at sowing cereals - 40 kg / ha. For crops such as canola or flax, the maximum safe dose - 20 kg / ha. Adding randomly it can be carried out in autumn or spring. In light soils having low absorption capacity, potash expedient (avoid loss of potassium from leaching) to make together with nitrogen fertilizers spring under cultivation, and under row crops of these fertilizers in transfer dressing.
Types of potash
Potash (0-0-60, 0-0-62)
The most commonly used potassium fertilizer is used for direct application or as mixtures with fertilizers phosphorus and nitrogen, for obtaining fertilizer 10-30-10, 8-24-24, 13-13-13, etc.
Sulfur in the form of a sulfate becomes easy enough available in wet soil. Therefore sulfur fertilizer may be applied as a randomly and banded. Elemental sulfur and gypsum may also be used as sulfur fertilizer.
Sources of sulfur fertilizer
Ammonium sulphate (21-0-0-24S, 20-0-0-24S, 19-3-0-22S)
Containing 22-24% of the sulfur as sulfate, typically used in a mixture with nitrogen fertilizers, combined with ammonium phosphate for fertilizer or urea type 16-20-0-14S - 34-0-0-11S.
The mixture of urea and ammonium sulphate (34-0-0-11S)
Contains 11% of the sulfur as sulfate, the best for use in acidic soils, in which sulfur deficiency possible.
A mixture of ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate (16-20-0-14S, 17-20-0-15S)
Carried from ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate, used as a single application of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in a single fertilizer.
Sulfur bentonite (90% S)
Elemental sulfur fertilizer, granular product which can be mixed with other fertilizers (except ammonium nitrate). The elemental sulfur must be converted to sulfate (available form for the plants). Converting to form sulfate conducted soil bacteria and requires several months of warm, moist soils.
Gypsum (CaSO4 * 2H2O)
Contains 18% of the sulfur as sulfate Not soluble as ammonium sulfate. Used as a single application of calcium and sulfur in a single fertilizer.